The global economy was hit hard by an ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as several companies reduced profits and market value in the year 2020. Therefore, in 2021, there is a list is being created of the 20 largest companies. The MSCI World Index fell 21% due to market volatility in the first half, and stock prices of some companies fell on the stock exchange. The second half proved to be relatively good in some industries as the data improved and began to regain the lost ground. Eventually, the year 2021 showed significant economic recovery from last year as some sectors, especially healthcare, retail, and technology, hit record highs in personal data and other corporate sectors are trying to recover from previous losses.
Top 20 companies in the World
20. Exxon Mobil Corporation
Exxon Mobil Corporation is a multinational company involved in the oil and gas industry. The product portfolio includes petroleum products namely crude oil, natural gas, power generation, and petrochemical products. It is one of the largest companies with a market capitalization of $ 262,730 billion. Its brand value is $ 13,434 billion. ExxonMobil’s revenue and net income were $ 18.494 billion, down 28.34% year-on-year, and $ 19.1 billion, down 267.84% year-on-year, respectively, for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021. ExxonMobil is one of the world’s largest revenue companies and was ranked 1st to 6th in market capitalization from 1996 to 2017. The company was ranked third in the world in the year 2016 in the Forbes Global 2000 list. ExxonMobil was the 10th most profitable Fortune 500 Company in the year 2017.
As of 2018, the company is ranked second in total revenue in the Fortune 500 ranking of the largest US Company. Institutional investors own approximately 55.56% of our shares. ExxonMobil’s largest shareholders as of March 2019 include State Street Corporation (4.83%), Black Rock (6.61%), and Vanguard Group (8.15%). As of 2007, the daily production was 39.21 million BOE (barrel of oil equivalent). In 2008, this was about 3% of the world’s production, below some of the major state-owned oil companies. It ranks 14th in the world in oil and gas reserves, less than 1% of total reserves. ExxonMobil’s reserves were 20 billion BOE at the end of 2016, and production in 2007 was expected to continue for more than 14 years. ExxonMobil has 37 oil refineries in 21 countries, with a daily refining capacity of 6.3 million barrels (1,000,000 m3), the seventh-largest refinery in the world, and it was also associated with the company named Standard Oil since its inception in the year 1870.
19. PayPal Company
PayPal Holdings Inc. is associated with the financial services industry. It was initially founded in the year 1988, the company operates an online payment system that supports online money transfers in most countries around the world. This is a payment processor for commercial users, auction sites, and online retailers. With a market capitalization of $ 28.65 billion, PayPal was ranked 19th as a major company in the year 2021.
Net income for the fiscal year which eventually ended on March 31, 2021, is reported to be $ 4.2 billion. PayPal was originally founded in December 1998 by Peter Thiel, Luke Nosek, and Max Levchin as Confinity, the company that developed security software for handheld devices. After failing in that business model, it shifted its focus to digital wallets. The first version of the PayPal electronic payment system was introduced in 1999. x.com is an online financial services company founded by Elon Musk in March 1999 and merged with Confinity in March 2000. Musk was optimistic about the future success of the money transfer business that Confinity is developing. In October of this year, Musk decided that X.com would abolish other internet banking businesses and focus on PayPal. In the same month, Elon Musk was replaced by Peter Thiel as CEO of X.com. Under the ticker PYPL at $ 13 per share, PayPal’s IPO was listed and it generated over $61 million.
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18. Walt Disney Company
Founded in 1923, The Walt Disney Company is a different conglomerate that is related to the entertainment and mass media sectors. With an interest in theme parks, television and filmmaking, it is an undisputed leader in the animation industry. With a market capitalization of $ 308.23 billion, The Walt Disney Company was ranked 18th on the list of major companies in the year 2021. Sales and net income for the year ended March 31, 2021, were $ 58,348 billion and $ 4,513 billion, respectively. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired divisions to sell more mature content than is normally associated with flagship family brands. The company is known for Walt Disney Studios in the movie studio division, including Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Pixar, Marvel Studios, Lucas film, 20th Century Studios, 20th Century Animation, and Searchlight Pictures.
Disney’s other major businesses include television, broadcast, streaming media, theme park resorts, consumer products, publishing, and international business divisions. Through these various segments, Disney owns and operates the ABC Broadcasting Network. Cable TV networks such as Disney Channel, ESPN, Freeform, FX, and National Geographic. Publishing, merchandising, music, and theatre divisions. Consumer streaming services such as Disney +, Star +, ESPN +, Hulu, and Hot star. Disney Parks Experiences and Products is a group of 14 theme parks that mainly includes resort hotels and cruise lines around the world. Created by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks in the year 1928, the cartoon character Mickey Mouse acts as a mascot.
17. Procter and Gamble Company
Procter & Gamble is one of America’s leading companies with a market capitalization of $ 337.27 billion, revenue of $ 74.87 billion, and net income of $ 13.933 billion for the fiscal year ended on March 31, 2021. Founded in the year 1837, the listed company is associated with the consumer goods industry and trades a wide range of products including consumer health, personal health, hygiene, and personal care. In the year 2014, P & G sales were $ 83.1 billion.
On August 1, 2014, P & G announced that it would remove about 100 brands from its product portfolio and sell them to streamline the company and focus on the remaining 65 brands that generate 95% of the company’s profits. AG Until October 31, 2015, Lafley, chairman and CEO of the company, said future P & G will be “a much simpler and less complex company of top brands that is easier to manage and operate.” Jon Moeller is the current President and CEO. From P & G. British-born candle maker William Procter and Irish-born soap maker James Gamble, both emigrated from the United Kingdom to the United States. They first settled in Cincinnati, Ohio, and met when they married their sisters Olivia and Elizabeth Norris. Her father-in-law, Alexander Norris, persuaded her to become a business partner, and Procter & Gamble was founded in 1837.
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16. Home Depot
The Home Depot is associated with the retail industry, which supplies appliances, hardware, tools, building materials, flooring, and more. The company Home Depot was founded in the year 1978, the company operates in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and Guam, with 2,296 stores as of the year March 2021. One of the top companies by market capitalization is the $ 340.7 billion is Home Depot. The company reported sales and net income of $ 141.35 billion and $ 14.766 billion for the year ended April 30, 2021, respectively. We operate many large box-style stores in the United States which usually includes the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands). All 10 states in Canada and all 32 Mexican states and Mexico City. The MRO Company Interline Brands (now The Home Depot Pro) is also owned by The Home Depot and has 70 distribution centers nationwide. The Home Depot was co-founded in the year 1978 by Bernard Marcus, Arthur Blank, Ron Brill, and Pat Farrah. The Home Depot proposed to build a home improvement store that was larger than any of its competitors’ facilities. An investment banker named Ken Langone helped Marcus and Blank raise the necessary funding.
“Bernie and I set up The Home Depot with our unique vision of creating a company that keeps the values we valued alive.” Values such as respect for all, excellent customer service, and giving back to the community and society. In 1979, the first two Metro Atlanta stores (Doraville and Decatur Memorial Drive, both near the I-285) were opened in a space leased by JC Penny. Originally it was the “Hypermarket” (discount store and grocery store) on Treasure Island in the year1979. On September 22, 1981, The Home Depot was published on NASDAQ and raised $ 40.93 million. The Home Depot was listed on the New York Stock Exchange on April 19, 1984. In 1981, The Home Depot began opening stores in Hollywood and Fort Lauderdale, from Georgia to Florida. By 1984, The Home Depot had 19 stores and sales of over $ 256 million. To enter the Dallas market, Home Depot has acquired Bowater Home Center from Bowater Inc. For $ 40 million on October 31, 1984. The expansion of the Home Depot in the mid-1980s caused financial difficulties, reducing profits by 42% and increasing debt to $ 200 million. The financial difficulties of the Home Depot also caused stock prices to fall. To contain the Home Depot trouble, we opened only 10 stores in 1986 and provided two inventories.
NVIDIA Corporation is an American technology company with a market capitalization of $ 351.75 billion. Founded in 1993 and the NVIDIA is based in Santa Clara, California, the company has expanded its presence in the global market. NVIDIA is associated with multiple sectors such as computer hardware, home appliances, video games, artificial intelligence, and semiconductors. The company’s revenue and net income increased 63.49% year-on-year to $ 19,256 million and 60.5% to $ 5,327 million, respectively, for the fiscal year which ended on April 30, 2021. In addition to GPU manufacturing, Nvidia provides an API called CUDA that allows you to create massively parallel programs that use the GPU.
They are deployed at supercomputing sites around the world. More recently, the company has entered the mobile computing market, manufacturing Tegra mobile processors for smartphones and tablets, as well as car navigation and entertainment systems. In addition to AMD, competitors include Intel and Qualcomm. Nvidia has announced plans to acquire Arm Ltd on September 13, 2020. It is worth $ 40 billion in stock and cash, the largest semiconductor acquisition to date, from Soft Bank, subject to regulatory approval. Soft Bank Group will acquire a little less than a 10% stake in Nvidia, and Arm will be headquartered in Cambridge. On February 7, 2022, Nvidia announced that it would suspend the acquisition of Arm in the face of increasing regulatory hurdles. The deal, which would have been the largest ever in the chip sector, was valued at $ 66 billion at the time of the collapse.
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14. Master card
Founded in the year 1966, the Master card is one of the American brands related to financial services. It is one of the top companies with a market capitalization of $ 357.27 billion and a brand value of $ 108,129 million. Global payment and technology companies process payments via credit card. Revenues and net revenues for the year ended March 31, 2021, were $ 15,447 billion and $ 6,546 billion, respectively. MasterCard was originally known as Interbank from 1966 to 1969 and Master Charge from the year 1969 to 1979 and corresponds to Bank Americard issued by Bank of America by some regional banking card associations. Created by the Alliance. Inc Bank America’s September 1958 debut was a notorious disaster, but it began to make a profit in May 1961. This strategy was successful until 1966 when Bank Americard’s profitability was so great that it couldn’t be hidden.
From 1960 to 1966, only 10 new credit cards were introduced in the United States, but from 1966 to 1968, about 440 credit cards were introduced by large and small banks across the country. These newcomers soon formed a regional banking card association. One of the reasons most banks decided to merge was that at the time, 16 states restricted the ability of banks to operate through branches, while 15 states banned branch banks altogether. Because the unit had requested one bank. All-purpose banks need to remain very small, as they can legally operate in only one place. By joining a regional banking card association, a single bank can quickly add credit cards to its range of financial products and outsource tedious back-office tasks such as card services to the association for economies of scale. Such associations have also enabled a single bank to consolidate its customer base and merchant network to make one credit card useful to both customers and merchants. Early credit cards failed because they could only be used within the narrow range of each issuing bank.
13. Bank of America
One of the top companies by market capitalization is Bank of America with $ 36,420 billion. It is one of the leading financial institutions that offer a variety of products such as investment management, banking, risk management, and financial management. Bank of America was founded in the year 1998, it is the second-largest bank in the United States and the eighth-largest bank in the world. The global market serves through 4,600 financial centers and more than 16,200 ATMs. Bank of America for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, reported revenues and net income of $ 91.37 billion and $ 20.492 billion, respectively.
One division of its history dates back to the US-based Bank of Italy, founded by Amadeo Pietro Giannini in the year 1904. The bank offered a variety of banking options to Italian immigrants facing discrimination in the service sector. Its headquarter is in San Francisco, California, Giannini acquired Banca d’America e d’Italia (Bank of America and Italy) in 1922. The enactment of the groundbreaking state banking law enabled rapid growth in the 1950s and quickly gained significant market share. Bank of America was acquired by Charlotte-based NationsBank for $ 62 billion, as is known at the time, after suffering significant losses after Russia’s bonds defaulted in 1998. Bank of America Corporation was founded after the largest bank acquisition in history at the time. Through a series of mergers and acquisitions, the company has grown its commercial banking business, establishing Merrill Lynch for Wealth Management and Bank of America Merrill Lynch (renamed BofA Securities) for investment banks in 2008 and 2009, respectively.
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12. United Health Group
With a market capitalization of US $ 386.06 billion, the UnitedHealth Group, based in the United States, is on the list of the largest companies in the year 2021. It is related to the managed healthcare and insurance industry and is ranked 7th on the 2020 Fortune 500 list. It is one of the top companies with a market value of $ 332,885 billion in the year 2020. UnitedHealth Group is one of the largest insurers in terms of net premiums and revenues, with a total of $ 262.91 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 6.7% year on year.
In 1974, Richard Taylor Burke founded Charter Med Incorporated which is generally a privately held company based in Minnetonka, Minnesota. United Health Care Charter was to manage the newly created Physicians Health Plan in Minnesota, an early health care organization. In 1988, United HealthCare began its first pharmacy performance management through its subsidiary, Diversified Pharmaceutical Services. He managed pharmacy services provided by both retail pharmacies and mail. The subsidiary was sold to Smith Kline Beecham in 1994 for US $ 2.3 billion. In 1994, United Health Care acquired Florida-based insurance company Ramsey HMO. In 1995, the company acquired Metra Health Companies Inc. for $ 1.65 billion. Metra Health was a privately held company founded by integrating the healthcare businesses of the Travellers Company and the MetLife Group.
11. Walmart Company
The retail market has seen a significant boost in 2021, with Wal-Mart being one of the top companies by market capitalization this year at $ 390,630 billion. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, sales were $ 559.2 billion, total assets were $ 252.5 billion, and operating income was $ 22.55 billion. Net income was reported to be $ 13.7 billion. Founded in 1962, the American company has expanded its presence with the support of 10,526 stores and clubs in 24 countries since April 30, 2021. According to the 2020 Fortune Global 500 list, it is the world’s largest revenue company and the largest private employer with 2.2 million employees. As of April 30, 2022, Wal-Mart has nearly 10,585 stores and also the company has clubs in around 24 countries which eventually operate under 46 different names.
The company has a wholly-owned business in Chile, Canada, and South Africa. As of August 2018, Wal-Mart owns only a minority stake in Wal-Mart Brazil and was renamed Grupo Big in August 2019, with a 20% stake in the company and private equity company Advent International. Owned 80% of the shares. Finally, they sold their shares in Grupo Big to french retailer Carrefour, closing a deal of R $ 7 billion completed on June 7, 2022. Wal-Mart is the world’s top company with annual sales of approximately $ 570 billion, according to the May 2022 Fortune Global 500 List. It is also the world’s largest private company with 2.2 million employees. This is a listed family-owned company because the company is managed by the Walton family. Sam Walton’s heirs own more than 50 percent of Wal-Mart through both the holding company Walton Enterprise and personal interests. Wal-Mart was the largest grocery retailer in the United States in 2019, with 65% of Wal-Mart’s $ 51.039 billion in sales coming from the United States.
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10. Johnson and Johnson
One of the top companies by market capitalization is the multinational global giant Johnson & Johnson at $ 44.78 billion. It was eventually founded in the year 1886, this iconic brand had sales and net income of $ 84,214 million and $ 15,115 million for the year ended March 31, 2021. Based in the United States, Johnson & Johnson is involved in pharmaceuticals, consumer healthcare, and medical devices, serving the global market from its headquarters in New Brunswick, USA.
Considered one of the most valuable companies in the world, it has a credit rating of AAA. Johnson & Johnson is headquartered in New Brunswick, NJ, and has a consumer division in Skillman, NJ. The company has approximately 250 subsidiaries, operates in 60 countries, and sells products in more than 175 countries. Johnson & Johnson’s global sales in 2020 were $ 82.6 billion. The Johnson & Johnson brand includes many well-known medicines and first aid kits. Well-known consumer products include Band-Aid branded bandages, Tylenol medicines, Johnson’s Baby products, Neutrogena skin and beauty products, Clean & Clear facial wash, and Acuvue contact lenses. Johnson & Johnson’s pharmaceutical division is Janssen Pharmaceuticals.
9. JP Morgan Chase and Company
With a market capitalization of the US $ 49.84 billion, American-born JP Morgan Chase & Co is one of the oldest and most famous banking institutions in the world. The company was founded in the year 2000, it is one of the “Big Four Banks of the United States”. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, the company’s revenue and net income were $ 13.0143 billion and $ 38.83 billion, respectively. JP Morgan Chase & Co is a custodian and universal bank that provides financial services and investment banking services to clients and clients in over 100 global markets with the help of more than 250,000 employees. Our product portfolio includes wealth management, asset management, treasury services, and private banking. As Bulge Bracket Bank, it is a leading provider of various investment banks and financial services.
Along with Bank of America, Citigroup, and Wells Fargo, it is one of the four largest accounting firms in the United States. JPMorgan Chase is considered a custodian and universal bank. Brand J.P. Morgan is used by investment banking, wealth management, private banking, private wealth management, and treasury services companies. Trustee activities for private banking and private wealth management are JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. Is supported by. – The actual trustee. The Chase brand is used for credit card services in the United States and Canada, retail banking operations for banks in the United States and the United Kingdom, and commercial banking operations. Both private and commercial banks, as well as the bank’s headquarters, are currently located on 383 Madison Avenue in Midtown, Manhattan, New York City. The former main building, 270 Park Avenue, directly across the street, has been demolished and made larger. The exchange headquarters are built on the same side.
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8. Visa Inc. Company
With a market capitalization of US $ 499.96 billion and a brand value of US $ 186,809 million, American-born Visa Inc. is ranked 8th on the list of 20 of the world’s largest companies in 2021. Public enterprise was founded in 2021. Founded in 1958 by Dee Hock, based in Foster City, California, it serves the global market. It is related to financial services and is useful for online or electronic funds transfers anywhere in the world.
Revenues and net income for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, are estimated at $ 21.354 billion and $ 10.662 billion, respectively. Visa does not issue cards, grant credits, or set fee on consumers. Rather, Visa makes Visa-branded payment products available to financial institutions, which they use to provide customers with credit, debit, prepaid, and cash access programs. In 2015, Nilson Report, a publication tracking the credit card industry, discovered that Visa’s global network (known as VisaNet) processed a total of $ 6.8 trillion in 100 billion transactions in 2014. Introduced as the BankAmericard Credit Card Program by Bank of America (BofA) in September 1958. In 1966, in response to its competitor Master Charge (now Mastercard), BofA began licensing the Bank Americard program to other financial institutions.  By 1970, BofA had abandoned direct control of the BankAmericard program and formed a consortium with various other BankAmericard issuing banks to control its control. It was then renamed Visa in 1976.
7. Tesla Inc. Company
Founded in 2003, Tesla Inc. is a US company whose headquarter is placed in Palo Alto, California, headed by CEO Elon Musk. With a market capitalization of $ 553.13 billion, it will firmly establish itself as the seventh-largest company in 2021. Tesla’s portfolio of products and services includes solar panels, battery storage, electric vehicles, solar roof tiles, software upgrades, charging, insurance, and vehicle maintenance. Revenue and net revenue for this well-known brand were $ 35,940 million and $ 1,112 million as of March. Fiscal year at the end of 2021 respectively. Tesla was founded as Tesla Motors in July 2003 by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning.
The company was named in honor of the inventor and electrician Nikola Tesla. In February 2004, Elon Musk became the company’s largest shareholder with an investment of $ 6.5 million. He has been CEO since 2008. According to Musk, Tesla’s purpose is to accelerate the transition to sustainable transportation and energy harvested through electric vehicles and solar energy. Tesla began production of his first model, the Roadster Sports Car, in 2009. This was followed by the Model Y crossover in 2020, the Model 3 sedan in 2017, the Model X SUV in 2015, and the Model S sedan in 2012. The Model 3 is the world’s best-selling plug-in electric vehicle and was the first electric vehicle to sell 1 million units worldwide in June 2021. Tesla’s worldwide sales in 2021 were 936,222 units, an increase of 87% year-on-year, with total sales of 2.3 million units at the end of 2021.
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6. Berkshire Hathaway Inc. Company
Another American conglomerate will be the largest of the top 20 companies in 2021. It is none other than Berkshire Hathaway Inc., the sixth-placed company with a market capitalization of $ 661.72 billion. It is the 10th largest conglomerate in the world, with revenues of $ 248,844 million. The multinational holding company was founded in 1839 by its founder Oliver Chance. Currently led by Warren Buffett, it includes a variety of companies including furniture, railroads, gas and electricity businesses, and confectionery. As of 2016, the company has acquired large shares of major US airlines United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Southwest Airlines, and American Airlines, which were sold in early 2020 during the COVID 19 outbreak, it was done. Berkshire Hathaway has provided shareholders with a combined annual book value growth of 19.0% since 1965 (compared to 9.7% of the S & P 500, including dividends for the same period) while using large amounts of capital and minimal debt. The company is known for its management and leadership by Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Warren Buffett and its Vice Chairman Charlie Munger. Early in his career in Berkshire, Buffett focused on long-term investments in listed companies, but nowadays he buys the entire company more often. Berkshire today owns a variety of businesses including confectionery, retail, railroad, furniture, encyclopedias, vacuum cleaner manufacturers, jewelry sales, uniform manufacturing and distribution, and electricity and gas utilities in some regions.
With a market capitalization of US $ 899.05 billion and a brand value of US $ 147.19 million, the American conglomerate Facebook has grown into a hot spot. Founded in 2004, the global company is connected to technology and operates as a social networking service, advertising, and social media platform. Facebook has many brands such as WhatsApp, Messenger, Instagram, Facebook, and Oculus VR, and two divisions such as Facebook Technologies and Facebook Financial, serving the global market. Revenues and net revenues for the year ended March 31, 2021, were $ 94.39 billion and $ 33.741 billion, respectively. You can access Facebook from internet-connected devices such as PCs, tablets, and smartphones. After registration, users can create profiles that reveal information about themselves. You can post text, photos, and multimedia content that are shared with other users who have agreed to be “friends” and other privacy settings. In addition, Facebook Messenger allows users to communicate directly with each other, join breakout sessions, and receive notifications about the activities of their Facebook friends and the pages they follow.
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4. Alphabet Inc. Company
Alphabet Inc.‘s multinational conglomerate, founded in 2015, is an American company headquartered in Google plex, California, serving the global market. It has the fourth-largest market capitalization of $ 1,565,290 million. It is also one of the most valuable global companies and the fourth largest in revenue in the world. Sales and net income of the world-famous Alphabet Inc. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, sales were $ 19.6682 billion, up 18% year-on-year, and $ 5.1363 billion, up 48.78% year-on-year, respectively.
With a market capitalization of $ 1.474.88 billion and a brand value of $ 415.85 million, Amazon, an American high-tech brand, was added to the list of 20 of the world’s largest companies in 2021. It deals with artificial intelligence, digital streaming, cloud computing, and e-commerce. Amazon has been described as the most valuable and influential company and is known for its high-end products such as Amazon Alexa, Amazon Web Services, Amazon App store, and Amazon Prime. Revenues and net income for the year ended March 31, 2021, were 419,130. $ 100 million (up 41.47% year-on-year), $ 26.903 billion (up 154.72% year-on-year).
Another technology brand on the list of the largest companies is Microsoft, a US company with a market capitalization of $ 1,8420.7 billion and a brand value of $ 326,544,000. We sell, license, manufacture, and develop personal computers, home appliances, and computer software. Microsoft was founded in 1975 and serves the global market from its headquarters in Redmond, Washington. Ranked 21st on the 2020 Fortune 500 list. The global company reported revenue and net income for the year ended March 31, 2021, up 15.34% year-on-year to $ 15.9969 billion and up 21.07% year-on-year to $ 56.015 billion, respectively.
1. Apple Inc. Company
With 71% growth in the technology sector, American Origin Apple, with a market capitalization of $ 2,0984.7 billion and a brand value of $ 352,060 million, has emerged as the world’s largest trendsetter. As of January 2021, the top brands have more than 1.65 billion products in the global market and manage 511 retail stores with 147,000 full-time employees. As of January 2021, it is ranked as the world’s largest technology company with sales of $ 274.5 billion, and net income for the year ended March 31, 2021, increased 33.38% to $ 76,311 million. Apple was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne as the Apple Computer Company to develop and sell Wozniak’s Apple I personal computers. Founded in 1977 by Jobs and Wozniak as Apple Computer, Inc., the company’s next computer, the Apple II, became a bestseller. Apple was released in 1980 and quickly became a financial success. The company has developed a computer with an innovative graphical user interface, including the original Macintosh, announced in Ridley Scott’s acclaimed “1984” ad. By 1985, the high cost of the product and the conflict between executives had caused problems.
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